Psychiatry & Clinical Psychopharmacology formerly Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Bulteni-Bulletin of Clinical Psychopharmacology

Editorial Manager ® for Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology


Instructions for Authors

Authorship and Responsibility

By submitting a manuscript to Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology, all persons included as authors agree that they have reviewed and approved the manuscript prior to submission, and that they accept responsibility for the information contained in the submission. Authorship credit should be based on: 1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3) final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions in 1, 2, and 3. In multicenter studies, the individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship/contributorship defined above and editors will ask these individuals to complete specific author and conflict of interest disclosure forms. All authors must sign a copyright transfer form. The names of all authors must be placed under the title of the manuscript. Individuals who were not principal researchers or writers should not be listed as authors, but should be acknowledged instead for their ancillary role in an acknowledgment footnote. By submitting original research, the authors agree that the original research data are available for review upon a formal request from the Editor.

All forms of support, including pharmaceutical industry support, must be acknowledged in the author's footnote (see "Acknowledgments" below, in the Title Page section). Also, authors must disclose in their cover letter any commercial or financial involvements that might present an appearance of a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, including (but not limited to) institutional or corporate affiliations not already specified in the author's footnote, paid consultancies, stock ownership or other equity interests, and patent ownership. This information will be kept confidential and will not be shared with reviewers.

Letters to the Editor

Letters must include a descriptive title. Most letters to the editor either comment on a recent Journal article or small studies.

For case reports and small studies, ensure that the chronology of events is clear, and specify the month/year in which events occurred. Specify diagnostic criteria used for any diagnoses mentioned, and provide references for scales/assessment tools used. If a search of the literature was conducted for related case reports, specify the data sources, keywords, and any date/language limitations used in the search.

For letters commenting on a Journal article, include a numbered reference to the article discussed. Be concise, and support your assertions with references as applicable. Also, please note that the authors of the original article will be given the opportunity to reply to letters commenting on their article.

Letters reporting small studies typically include (1) a brief introductory paragraph, (2) sections titled "Method" and "Results" (labeled with capitalized headings), and (3) a conclusions/discussion section. Letters may be up to 1,500 words in length with a maximum of 5 references.

Please click for Copyright Transfer Form


The language of the journal is American English.



Manuscript Organization and Format

All correspondence will be sent to the first-named author unless otherwise specified. Papers should be accompanied by a cover letter indicating that the paper is intended for publication and specifying for which section of the Journal it is being submitted (i.e., original article, review article, case report etc.). In addition, a copyright transfer form that has to be signed by all authors should be uploaded to the official web site of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology. Authors will be notified of the receipt of their paper and the number assigned to the submission. The number should be included in all further correspondence. All electronic documents have to be in MSWord 2010 version.

The manuscript should be arranged in the following order, with each item beginning a new page: 1) title page, 2) abstract, 3) text, 4) acknowledgment 5) references, and 6) tables and/or figures. All pages must be numbered consecutively.

Title Page

On the title page, include full names of authors, academic or professional affiliations, and complete addresses with phone number, and e-mail address of the corresponding author. Acknowledgments for personal and technical assistance should be indicated on the title page.

Abstract and Keywords

Title of the manuscript in English should be written before the English abstract. The abstract should be no shorter than 400 and no longer than 500 words and structured as follows: objectives, methods, results, and conclusions. Objective(s) -the primary purpose of the article; Method(s) -data sources, design of the study, patients or participants, interventions, and main outcome measures; Results -key findings; Conclusions -including direct clinical applications. Case reports should include unstructured abstracts.

Abstract should give information about the background and the aim of the study, basic procedures (case selection, analytical or observational methods), main findings (specific weight and significance, if applicable) and basic conclusions. The novel and remarkable features of the study should be emphasized. Authors should ensure that the abstract would represent the whole study as it is the most prominent part of the work in the majority of electronic data bases. Up to 3-6 keywords should be provided, in accordance with Index Medicus, Medical Subjects Subheadings (MeSH). Keywords should be selected from National Library of Medicine'in Medical Subject Headings, MeSH ( and be located under abstract.


This section should contain a clear statement of the general and specific objectives of the study, as well as the hypotheses that the work is designed to test. It should also give a brief account of the reported literature. The last sentence should clearly state the primary and secondary purposes of the article. References related to the issues raised must be indicated. Data or findings from the current study must not be included in this section.


This section should contain explicit, concise descriptions of all procedures, materials and methods used in the investigation to enable the reader to judge their accuracy, reproducibility, etc. This section should include the known findings at the beginning of the study. Findings from the current study must be reported in the results section. The selection and description of the participants

The selection, population source, inclusion and exclusion criteria of the subjects who participated in experimental or clinical studies must be clearly defined in this section. The particular study sample must be explained by the authors (i.e., why the study was performed in a definite age, race or gender population, etc.)

Technical information

The methods, apparatus (the manufacturer's name and address in parentheses), and procedures must be described in sufficient detail to allow others to reproduce the results. References to established methods, including statistical methods (see below) must be given. Brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well known must be provided. New or substantially modified methods must be described, the reasons for using them must be given, and the limitations of the methods must be evaluated. All drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration must be identified.

Authors submitting review manuscripts should include a section describing the methods used for locating, selecting, extracting, and synthesizing data. These methods should also be summarized in the abstract.

Statistical analysis

The statistical methods must be described with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results. If possible, findings should be quantified and presented with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Relying solely on statistical hypothesis testing, such as P values, which fail to convey important information about effect size must be avoided. References for the design of the study and statistical methods should be to standard works when possible (with pages stated). Define statistical terms, abbreviations, and most symbols. The computer software used must be specified.


The results should be presented in logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations, giving the main or most important findings first. Data in the tables or illustrations should not be repeated in the text; only the most important observations should be emphasized or summarized in the text. Extra or supplementary materials and technical detail can be placed in an appendix where they will be accessible but will not interrupt the flow of the text, or they can be published solely in the electronic version of the journal.

When data are summarized in the Results section, numeric results should be given not only as derivatives (for example, percentages) but also as the absolute numbers from which the derivatives were calculated, and the statistical methods used to analyze them should be specified. Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess supporting data. Graphs should be used as an alternative to tables with many entries; data should not be duplicated in graphs and tables.


The findings of the study which support or do not support the hypothesis of the study should be discussed, results should be compared and contrasted with findings of other studies in the literature and the differences from other studies should be explained. The new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow from them should be emphasized. The data or other information given in the Introduction or the Results section should not be repeated in detail. For experimental studies, it is useful to begin the discussion by summarizing briefly the main findings, then explore possible mechanisms or explanations for these findings, compare and contrast the results with other relevant studies, state the limitations of the study, and explore the implications of the findings for future research and for clinical practice.

The conclusions should be linked with the goals of the study but unqualified statements and conclusions not adequately supported by the data should be avoided. New hypotheses should be stated when warranted, but should be labeled clearly as such.

Tables, graphics, and illustrations

Tables, graphics and illustrations should be numbered in Arabic numerals rather than Roman in the text. The placement of the illustrations should be indicated in the text.


Tables display information concisely and display it efficiently; they also provide information at any desired level of detail and precision. Including data in tables rather than in text frequently makes it possible to reduce the length of the text. Tables should be prepared in MS Word 2010 version. Each table should be typed or printed with double spacing on a separate sheet of paper. The tables should be numbered consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text and a brief title for each table should be supplied. Internal horizontal or vertical lines should not be used. A short or an abbreviated heading should be given to each column. Authors should place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading. All nonstandard abbreviations should be explained in footnotes, and the following symbols should be used in sequence: *,†,‡,§,||,¶,**,††,‡‡

The statistical measures of variations, such as standard deviation and standard error of the mean, should be identified. Be sure that each table is cited in the text. If you use data from another published or unpublished source, obtain permission and acknowledge that source fully.

Additional tables containing backup data too extensive to publish in print may be appropriate for publication in the electronic version of the journal, deposited with an archival service, or made available to readers directly by the authors. An appropriate statement should be added to the text. Such tables should be submitted for consideration with the paper so that they will be available to the peer reviewers.

Illustrations (Figures)

Figures should be either professionally drawn and photographed, or submitted as digital prints in photographic-quality. In addition to providing a version of the figures suitable for printing, authors are asked for electronic files of figures in a format (for example, JPEG or GIF) that will produce high-quality images in the Web version of the journal. Authors should review the images of such files on a computer screen before submitting them to be sure that they meet their own quality standards.

For x-ray films, scans, and other diagnostic images, as well as pictures of pathology specimens or photomicrographs, sharp, glossy, black-and-white or color photographic prints should have a high resolution. Letters, numbers, and symbols on figures should therefore be clear and consistent throughout, and large enough to remain legible when the figure is reduced for publication. Figures should be made as self-explanatory as possible, since many will be used directly in slide presentations. Titles and detailed explanations belong in the legends--not on the illustrations themselves. Photomicrographs should have internal scale markers. Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background. Photographs of potentially identifiable people must be accompanied by written permission to use the photograph.

Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been cited in the text. If a figure has been published previously, the original source should be acknowledged and written permission from the copyright holder should be submitted to reproduce the figure. Permission is required irrespective of authorship or publisher except for documents in the public domain.

Accompanying drawings marked to indicate the region to be reproduced might be useful to the editor. We publish illustrations in color only if the author pays the additional cost.

Legends for Illustrations (Figures)

The legends for illustrations should be typed or printed using single spacing, starting on a separate page, with Arabic numerals corresponding to the illustrations. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, each one should be identified clearly and explained in the legend. The internal scale should be explained and the method of staining in photomicrographs should be identified.

Units of Measurement

Measurements of length, height, weight, and volume should be reported in metric units (meter, kilogram, or liter) or their decimal multiples. Temperatures should be in degrees Celsius, blood pressures should be in millimeters of mercury. Authors should report laboratory information in both local and the International System of Units (SI). Drug concentrations may be reported in either SI or mass units, but the alternative should be provided in parentheses where appropriate.

Abbreviations and Symbols

Use only standard abbreviations; use of nonstandard abbreviations can be confusing to readers. Avoid abbreviations in the title of the manuscript. The spelled-out abbreviation followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis should be used on first mention unless the abbreviation is a standard unit of measurement.

Case Reports and Word Limitation

Original papers and reviews have no specific word limitation. A case report must be strictly limited to 1,000 words, excluding the abstract, and have minimal figures, tables, and references. A typical Letter to the Editor for this journal should be more than 500 and no more than 1,500 words; this limit includes tables, references, footnotes, endnotes, figure captions. The letter must be signed by all of its authors. Letters critical of an article published in the journal must be received within 12 weeks of the publication of the original article.


All forms of support, including individual technical support or material support must be acknowledged in the author's footnote before the references.


Although references to review articles can be an efficient way to guide readers to a body of literature, review articles do not always reflect original work accurately. Readers should therefore be provided with direct references to original research sources whenever possible. On the other hand, extensive lists of references to original work on a topic can use excessive space on the printed page. Small numbers of references to key original papers often serve as well as more exhaustive lists, particularly since references can now be added to the electronic version of published papers, and since electronic literature searching allows readers to retrieve published literature efficiently.

Using abstracts as references should be avoided. References to papers accepted but not yet published should be designated as "in press" or "forthcoming"; authors should obtain written permission to cite such papers as well as verification that they have been accepted for publication. Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text as "unpublished observations" with written permission from the source.

Citing a "personal communication" should be avoided unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text. For scientific articles, written permission and confirmation of accuracy from the source of a personal communication must be obtained.

Reference Style and Format

The Uniform Requirements style for references is based largely on an American National Standards Institute style adapted by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) for its databases. Authors should consult NLM's Citing Medicine ( for information on its recommended formats for a variety of reference types.

References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in text, tables, and legends by Arabic numerals in superscripts. References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in the list of Journals in NLM Catalog (

Accuracy of citation is the author's responsibility. All references should be cited in the text.

The examples for the references are as follows:



- Personal experiences and unpublished papers should not be used as references. - While preparing references one should review the examples of references in the journal and special attention should be paid to the punctuation!

1. Examples for journal articles:

For the articles included in NLM Catalog and abbreviated according to NLM rules:

Authors’ last names and initials of first names without a period must be entered. A comma after the initial --of first names- should separate authors' names. A period should be put following the initial of first name of the last author before proceeding with the title of the article. In the articles with more than six writers after the name of 6th author "et al." should be used without listing the names of remaining authors.

Then the title of the article should be written with a period "." in the end of the title. After the short name of the journal in NLM Catalog is written without a period, the following characters should follow: A space, publication date, a semicolon, volume number, issue number in parenthesis, a colon, starting page number of the article in the journal, a hyphen, and last page number of the article. When writing the last page of the article in the journal, the same digits are not repeated. A period is placed in the end.

Journals that are not indexed by Medline/PubMed should be given in full name. Example:

Barlas IO, Cetin M, Erdal ME, Semiz UB, Basoglu C, Moon ME, et al. Lack of association between DRD3 gene polymorphism and response to clozapine in Turkish Patients Schizoprenia. Am J Med Genet B 2009;150(1):56-60.

For the articles in Turkish not included in NLM Catalog and not abbreviated according to NLM rules:

Altindag O, Altindag A, Virit O, Savas HA, Yılmaz M, Bozgeyik O. et al. Bone mineral density in schizophrenia patients on antipsychotics.Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Bulteni-Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2009;19(4):402-6. [Turkish]

2. Supplement Issue articles:

For the articles included NLM Catalog and abbreviated according to NLM rules:

Wasylenski DA. The cost of schizophrenia. Can J Psychiatry 1994;39(Suppl.2):S65-S9.

For the articles not included in NLM Catalog and not abbreviated according to NLM rules:

Karamustafalıoğlu O, Yavuz BG. Management of inadequate response in major depressive disorder and new treatment options. Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Bulteni - Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2011;21(Suppl. 1):S20-S5. [Turkish]

3. Articles in Press:

Littlewhite HB, Donald JA. Pulmonary blood flow regulation in an aquatic snake. Science 2002 (in Press).

4. References from textbooks:

To cite from a book written by one author:

Kayaalp SO. From the Perspective of Rational Therapy: Medical Pharmacology.12th ed. Printing, Ankara: Pelican Medical and Technical Publishing;2009. p. 68-78. [Turkish]

To cite from a book written by more than one author:

Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical Microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.

To cite a chapter from a book reviewed by more than one editor:

Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, eds.The Genetic Basis of Human Cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.

To cite from a translated book:

Doğan Y, Özden A, İzmir M (Translation editors), Treatment Options of Alcohol and Substance Abuse. Milkman HB, Sederer LI, eds. Ankara: Ankara University Publishing;1999.p.79-96.

5. To cite a thesis:

Ulusoy M. Beck Anxiety Inventory: The study of validity and reliability. Postgraduate thesis. Bakırkoy Research and Training Hospital for Mental and Nervous Diseases, Istanbul. 1993 (Turkish).

6. To cite abstracts from Congress Abstract Books:

Felek S, Kilic SS, Akbulut A, Yildiz M. Fligelloz halüsinasyonla a visual phenomenon of watching. XXVI. Turkish Microbiology Congress, Abstract Book, 22-27 September 2000, Antalya, Mars Press, 1994. p. 53-6.

7. To cite from corporate data files:

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies: Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A), 2008 (data file ICPSR27241-v2). Ann Arbor, Mich., the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research, March 31, 2010 (doi: 10.3886/ICPSR27241)

8. To cite from newspaper or magazine articles:

Tynan T. Medical improvements lower homicide rate: study sees drop in assault rate. The Washington Post. 2002 Aug 12;Sect. A:2 (col. 4).

9. To cite from Internet sources:

To cite from a journal article on internet

Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 1 p.]. Available from:

10. To cite from e-journals

Zhang M, Holman CD, Price SD, Sanfilippo FM, Preen DB, Bulsara MK. Comorbidity and repeat admission to hospital for adverse drug reactions in older adults: retrospective cohort study. BMJ. 2009 Jan 7;338:a2752. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a2752.